Thursday, December 20, 2012

Highlights from 2012

The highlight for me was continuing our lamprey surveys in the Lower White Salmon and White Salmon River mouth and to witness firsthand the changes to this ecosystem after the breach of Condit Dam and subsequent flushing of the Northwestern Reservoir Sediments.  (Jeff Jolley)

My highlight was helping to get the PIT tag array system and solar panels in the Imnaha River working extremely well so we can really understand bull trout movement in the watershed. (Tim Whitesel)

The highlight for me was working with STEP students Taylor, Hannah, Juliette, and Sean. (Donna Allard)

My highlight without question was working with STEP students Brianne Ankenman, Aaron Mettler, and Emily Peterson.  Bright, pleasant young people.  The work we did (bull trout occupancy sampling in the Umatilla Basin) wasn't as hard as it gets, but it wasn't easy, and they were always game, never complaining--even when their guide (yours truly) led them out of the steep and deep Shimmiehorn Creek country onto the wrong ridge (i.e., not the one the rigs were on), adding five miles of hiking to their day.  Just more opportunity for The Bear Bells (Brianne and Emily) to chat away, and for Aaron to cross train lugging around the backpack electrofisher.  (Paul Sankovich)

Brianne, Aaron, Emily, and Paul

I got to spend a week in Malheur National Wildlife Refuge mapping water control structures. This entailed a lot of hiking around dry ponds and ditches with a GPS unit. While looking for the structures, it's not hard catch glimpses of all the wildlife. I saw golden eagles, bald eagles, otters, beavers, coyotes, deer, and lots of quail just to name a few. The refuge, located in SE Oregon, highlights a high desert environment with few trees, lots of sage, and is characterized by being very flat with buttes, capped with rimrock, that stick up out of the landscape. Truly a breathtaking place to work.  (Nadia Jones)

Krumbo Reservoir
 
My highlight was doing the fall Chinook salmon redd surveys in the White Salmon River this year with everyone.  We observed redds and salmon upstream of the former Condit Dam location (the dam was breached last year and removed this year).  I expected salmon and spawning in the upper White Salmon River but seeing it with my own eyes made it a highlight for me this year.  (Rod Engle)

My highlight this year was working with a crew of fun, dedicated and hard working students.  Juliet Harrison, Brianne Ankenman, Sean Hansen, Aaron Mettler, Ben Wishnek, Jordan Miller, Emily Peterson, and John Newbury.  (Brook
Silver)
STEP Students
I got to put a bull trout from the Metolius into the Clackamas River as part of a bull trout reintroduction program!  (Marci Koski)

Marci releasing a bull trout into the Clackamas River

  • Learning how to surgically implant radio telemetry tags in juvenile spring Chinook salmon.
  • Kayaking the lower Warm Springs River to mobile track radio-tagged juvenile Chinook salmon.
  • Conducting spawning ground surveys on the White Salmon River and being one of the first groups of people to raft through the former site of Condit Dam - an experience I will never forget!  (Jen Poirier)

Jen surgically implanting a radio tag into a Chinook salmon.

My highlight for 2012 was tracking juvenile Chinook salmon in the beautiful lower Deschutes river.  (Brian Davis)
Deschutes River

2012 was a fun year, I think one of my favorite things was seeing projects that were years in the making happen on the ground with so much great collaboration from so many partners.  In particular, providing fish passage at the South Fork Necanicum dam was really exciting.  (Amy Horstman)

My highlight during my time here so far would have to be a tie between going out to help with PIT tagging, and watching the office run around to "Gangnam Style" during the CFC Cake Walk fundraiser.  I never thought I'd hear that ridiculous song here.  (Christina Uh)

Highlight for 2012:  Being a part of the Service's Region 1 Surrogate Species "Training Team".  Working with colleagues in other Service programs to put together workshops and a webinar to explain and solicit feedback on the Service's use of surrogate species as a biological planning tool for Strategic Habitat Conservation. Manning Region 1's Surrogate Species Hotline, ready to jump into action at the ring of a phone!  (David Hand)

Dave manning the hot line.

The highlights of 2012 for me were on-site project visits both for the Lower Columbia Fish Recovery Board, and with Amy Horstman on projects funded by the National Fish Passage Program.  (Ron Rhew)

For me, the highlights of 2012 were working with a great group of folks on the NW Fish Culture Conference; starting conversations to develop an ECOS-FIS-CRiS database evolution; and the honor of supervising a stellar hatchery assessment team.  (Doug Olson)

The highlight of my year was getting certified as a Swiftwater Rescue Technician through a three day training course in the White Salmon River, WA.  (Maureen Kavanagh)


Maureen with her certificate of completion.

My best part of 2012 was getting to work at Winthrop NFH in August.  On my day off, I went up to Harts Pass and took a hike on the last stretch of the Pacific Crest Trail before it reaches the Canadian border.   It’s definitely a place I look forward to revisiting every year.  (Geoff Gribble)

Hart's Pass

The highlight for me was hiring Christina Uh last summer and making her part of the new Pathways program.  (Larry Fishler)

 One of my major highlights of the year was working with Donna Allard, Sean Connolly and others from the regional office to produce a video overview of the automated marking trailers at Spring Creek NFH in March.  It was awkward having a video camera following me around for a day,  but it was great to be able to work on something that would help showcase and explain to the public how an automated trailer works . Sean's team did a great job of cutting out about 80% of the awkward footage and piecing together the few good parts to turn into, what I think, is an excellent video.

 Another big highlight for me was getting out to Winthrop NFH in August to coded wire tag Coho salmon for the Yakama Indian Nation.  Winthrop NFH is a great location to work at and I really enjoyed spending a day off fly fishing the Chewuch and catching 8 - 14 inch cutthroat and rainbow trout on a 3 weight fly rod.  It was an amazing experience that was good for the mind and soul.
  My final highlight of the year would have to be spending a week at Winthrop NFH in October with the CRFPO project leader and having the opportunity to get him into the field with the marking team.  It was great to not only show Howard what we do, but also to have him be a part of it.  Marking team members enjoyed having the opportunity to work with him and I think, (although they may not admit it) slightly enjoyed having a chance to boss him around a little.  Howard was very helpful, worked hard, and seemed to enjoy the change of scenery.  The marking team is hopeful that he might find the time to join us in the field again sometime in 2013.  (Jesse Rivera)

November 2012 Bull Trout Embryo Collections (William Brignon)
From left to right – Ryan Koch (USFWS), William Brignon (USFWS, OSU), Carl Schreck (OSU, USGS), Doug Olson (USFWS), Porter The Dog (volunteer), Jacque Schreck (volunteer), James Archibald (USFWS), Cheyenne Wahnetah (Confederated Tribes of Warm Springs Indian Reservation of Oregon), Tim Whitesel (USFWS), Rob Chitwood (OSU), and Brook Silver (USFWS). 
Poster Presented at the 2012 Northwest Fish Culture Conference and the 2013 Oregon Chapter of the American Fisheries Society Meeting.  (William Brignon) 


My highlight is working on the Pacific Lamprey Conservation Agreement which was signed by 33 of our state, tribal, federal and local agency partners. (Christina Luzier)

Signatories of the Pacific Lamprey Conservation Agreement


The highlight of my year has been to watch a number of our biologists and professional staffs grow.
 
Many folks at CRFPO have stretched their scientific capability by voluntarily advancing their education through working on completing undergraduate or graduate degrees.    Many others have advanced themselves and teams by coming up with creative and new approaches to field techniques and population assessment approaches.  A number of our folks have published manuscripts to share this information with our partners and colleagues.
 
The area where I have observed tremendous professional growth is in our staff taking leadership roles in advancing the operation of our office to building conservation plans across multiple regions with multiple partners.  Our administrative folks have kept our operation smooth, despite the challenges of a new financial system. Many of our folks have volunteered to participate and lead on regional and national initiatives related to landscape conservation and climate change issues.  The general feedback I have received from numerous internal and external partners is that – ‘our folks are advancing fish conservation in a big way’.

Lastly, we have a number of dedicated folks constantly improving the delivery of the quantity and quality of our enormous fish marking program.  The individual leadership these folks take day in and day out for delivering this program is amazing.

Watching these future leaders of the Fish and Wildlife Service grow and step-up to this huge conservation challenge is the highlight of my year.  (Howard Schaller, Project Leader)



Happy Holidays Everyone! 

Monday, December 10, 2012

Anadromous Fish Evaluation Program

Each year the Portland and Walla Walla Districts in the Northwestern Division of the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (Corps) fund biological studies designed to answer important questions about adult and juvenile salmon, steelhead, bull trout and Pacific lamprey condition and survival as they migrate upstream and downstream, over and through, eight large hydropower dams (Bonneville, The Dalles, John Day, McNary, Ice Harbor, Lower Monumental, Little Goose and Lower Granite) owned and operated by the Corps in the mainstem lower Columbia and Snake Rivers.  The program is called the Anadromous Fish Evaluation Program or AFEP for short.  Annually, representatives from the regional fish management agencies (federal, state and tribal) meet throughout the year with the Corps to discuss current information gaps and needed studies about fish passage condition and survival at the hydropower projects as the physical structure/configuration (new turbines, spillwalls, surface passage structures, fish ladder improvements, etc.) of the projects and their operations (powerhouse /turbine operations, spill patterns, amount and timing, fish collection and transportation, etc.) change from year to year.  Study proposals are developed from the compiled list of study needs by researchers, reviewed and commented on by the AFEP participants for scientific appropriateness to answer the specific question(s) the study proposal is dealing with, and then finalized.  After receiving agency and tribal input on their recommendations for study priorities, the Corps selects the studies to be funded the following fiscal year that fit within the allotted budget.  After the end of the fieldwork/study season preliminary results are presented at the annual AFEP Review, typically in late November.  The results of these studies feed into decisions on the operation and configuration of the eight hydropower projects, and discussions on further needed studies during the following AFEP cycle. 

The Dalles Dam and the 800 foot long spillwall completed in 2010 to direct juvenile fish passing over the dam into the safety of the deep main channel, away from predators. (USCG and USACE)
The Dalles Dam 800 foot long spillwall as seen from the dam. (USFWS)

The U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (Service) has a responsibility for all public and treaty tribal trust species, as do all federal agencies, but the Service is particularly interested in improving the fate and survival of bull trout and Pacific lamprey as they migrate in the mainstem.   The 2012 Annual AFEP Review just concluded on November 29 after three days and over 35 research presentations.   The research presentations were divided into seven categories; estuary studies, avian and pinniped (bird and sea lion) predation studies, adult fish passage and survival studies (includes bull trout), juvenile fish passage and survival studies, system survival studies, transportation studies, and lamprey studies.  The 2012 research presentations may be viewed at: http://www.nwd-wc.usace.army.mil/tmt/documents/AFEP/.  The Service has been pleased to be a partner in the AFEP process for many years, not only as an active participant in the discussions for study needs, their development and review, but also as a research partner in the field studying bull trout use, movement and passage in the mainstem Columbia and Snake Rivers. 
Adult fish ladder at Lower Granite Dam. (USFWS)

Well, the 2012 AFEP season is now officially over.  However, the AFEP respite is short, for in early January the Corps will present its selection of studies for the 2013 fieldwork season, and the meetings will begin to review the final results of the 2012 work, and begin to develop study needs for 2014.  The cycle continues with the goal of making fish passage as safe as possible to prevent irreparable loss that would adversely affect the continued existence of an Endangered Species Act (ESA) listed species.


Spill for juvenile fish passage at McNary Dam.  Surface top spill weirs are in place in spillbays 19 and 20 (3rd and 4th bays from the right). (USFWS)

Submitted by Dave Wills 

Monday, December 3, 2012

Tenacious Trespasser #2: Bullfrog

They secretly slither, swim, hitchhike and crawl their way, often traveling thousands of miles over land and sea to invade our local rivers, lakes and streams.  Once they make themselves at home, these pesky invaders wreak havoc on the aquatic ecosystem and local economy.  Yes folks, we are talking about Aquatic Nuisance Species.  In the next few months we will introduce you to 10 tenacious trespassers that pose a threat to the native flora, fauna, and fishes of the Columbia River Basin.  Keep a close eye out for these critters because we need to send them packing for good!

American Bullfrog   (Lithobates catesbeianus)

What is it?

The bullfrog is the largest species of frog in the United States with males reaching 8 inches in length and weighing up to one pound.  They inhabit a variety of freshwater habitats including ponds, marshes, streams, and rivers; as well as man-made habitats such as canals and storm water ponds. 

FACTUnlike other frogs, bullfrogs spend most of their time in the water where they feed.
 
What does it look like?

Tadpoles are dark green with black dots and yellow bellies and are up to 6 inches long.  Adults are greenish to dark brown with dark spots and gold eyes.  They have an exposed eardrum (tympanum) which can be twice the size of their eye in males.  The bullfrog lacks the two parallel lines of raised glandular skin between the back and side found on native frogs.  Instead a fold of skin begins just behind the eye and extends to its ear.
FACT:  The BULLfrog is named after its distinct call which sounds like a cow mooing.

Where is it from & where it is now?

The bullfrog is native to the eastern United States and southern Quebec and Ontario.  It has been introduced to many areas of the western United States, Europe, South America, and Asia.

FACT:  The bullfrog can now be found in all of the lower 48 states.

How did it get here?

Bullfrogs were probably originally introduced accidentally during fish stocking into many lakes in western states.  They were intentionally introduced as a food item (frog legs) during the early 1900’s and have been widely distributed through the aquarium trade.
   
FACT:  Bullfrogs can travel up to a mile over land during wet seasons, allowing them to colonize new waters and expand their range.



What are its impacts?

Adult bullfrogs eat anything they can catch and swallow including native frogs, turtles, birds, fish, crustaceans, and bats.  Because they lack predators and have a high rate of reproduction, bullfrogs can quickly establish themselves in areas resulting in declines in native populations.  Bullfrogs have been blamed for the decline of the native Western pond turtle in Oregon, Washington and California. 
  
FACTBullfrogs lay up 20,000 eggs each season while native species such as red-legged frogs only lay up to 5,000 eggs.

What is being done about it?

Control measures such as regulated harvests, introducing predator species (e.g. largemouth bass), trapping and collection of egg masses have been used to combat this fiendish frog, but most methods are considered too expensive and time consuming.  Prevention through public education is considered the best, most effective measure to combat the spread of Bullfrog.  And remember, Washington State has classified the bullfrog as a Prohibited Aquatic Animal Species, meaning they may not be possessed, purchased, sold, propagated, transported, or released into state waters.
    
FACT:  In Oregon, the bullfrog is considered a controlled species and can be legally harvested year-round; no license is required.

How can YOU prevent the spread of bullfrogs?

  • NEVER release unwanted pet frogs or science projects into the wild.  Instead, consider giving it to a friend.
  • DO NOT purchase or share bullfrogs at any life stage (eggs to adults).  Report any bullfrogs you see for sale to Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife or Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife.



Submitted by Donna Allard

Monday, November 26, 2012

Restoration in Urban Areas



How important is restoration in                                                             YOU 
urban areas for conservation?                                                ... be the judge.       

In the Pacific northwest of the United States, the management of natural ecosystems has become focused on the conservation of threatened and endangered species.  When it comes to fish populations that use fresh water, conservation efforts have often centered on remote wilderness areas that are relatively pristine, or in what have been called stronghold areas.  However, the conservation value of “peripheral” populations has also been recognized.  Peripheral populations are often small in size, and are generally defined as those on the edge of the species’ range.  It is not uncommon for some imperiled fish populations, especially peripheral populations, to inhabit urban, suburban or developed landscapes.  The typical threats urbanization generally presents to aquatic species include poor water quality, flashy (highly variable flow) streams, and barriers to migration.  In addition, urban areas may have distinct climates, often being warmer than their surrounding environments.  Whether climate change will impact urban areas differently than rural or remote areas is unclear.  The ecology of species in urban environments, or “urban ecology” is emerging as an important consideration for conservation.  Fish populations in urban or suburban areas are becoming increasingly valued as a component of overall conservation efforts.

Tryon Creek is one of the largest, and most protected, urban watersheds in Oregon.  Tryon Creek is an urban stream located in southwest Portland.  The creek flows approximately 3 miles through privately owned land before entering Tryon Creek State Natural Area, a 640 acre area of public land, through which the stream flows another 3 miles.  The lower most portion of Tryon Creek flows through public land owned by the City of Lake Oswego and the City of Portland.  The lower ¼ mile of the creek is separated from the upper portion by a culvert that runs under Highway 43 and a railroad.  Almost 25% of the land drained by Tryon Creek is parks and open spaces or publically managed.  Thus, as an urban stream, Tryon Creek has relatively high restoration potential.

Tryon Creek is, or likely has been, home to a number of native fish species.  Species that currently can be found and appear to spawn in Tryon Creek include rainbow and coastal cutthroat trout.  There is evidence that steelhead trout and coho salmon historically spawned in the creek, too.  We have also found juvenile coho and Chinook salmon in the stream, above and below the Highway 43 culvert.  Historically, it is thought that Pacific and western brook lamprey may have also used the creek.  Currently, although lamprey are occasionally found below the culvert, they do not appear to be in the creek upstream of Highway 43.  In addition, coho and Chinook salmon as well as Pacific lamprey can also be found in numerous streams adjacent to Tryon Creek (such as Johnson Creek). 

What Might Be Problems For Fish In Tryon Creek?

Some people think that fish entering the creek is a problem.  About ¼ of a mile up the creek there is a culvert.  This culvert (under highway 43 and the adjacent railroad) may be restricting, or preventing, upstream passage of fish and keeping them from being able to access 90-95% of the habitat in the watershed.

Some people think the conditions in the creek are a problem.  A number of culverts (like the one under Boone’s Ferry Road) may also be barriers to fish movement within the watershed.  Additionally, in some cases there isn’t much wood in the stream (fish often like wood for cover) and a lot of the stream bed is made up of fine, sandy sediment (which fish may not like very much). 

Some people think the habitat conditions surrounding Tryon Creek are a problem.  About ¼ of the watershed is “impervious” or cannot soak up rain.  For example, a paved road is generally impervious and rain runs off the road rather than soaking into the ground.  In the case of Tryon Creek, much of the rain that would normally soak into the ground and slowly make its way to the creek, instead, rushes quickly and directly to the creek.  This results in very sudden and frequent changes in the amount of water in the stream, how fast it is flowing and how dirty it is.

However … although many of these conditions may be problematic to fish, cutthroat trout can be found throughout the watershed, and appear to be relatively healthy and abundant.  So Tryon Creek clearly appears to be an urban watershed that has potential for fish!

What Is Being Done To Help The Fish?

A number of restoration activities have occurred in the subbasin.  Some recent examples of restoration activities focused on the aquatic habitat include …

A collaborative project to improve habitat conditions downstream of Highway 43.  In particular, this project was designed to improve aquatic habitat for fish, including fish from outside of the subbasin that may use lower Tryon Creek for rearing.

A collaborative project to improve passage conditions for migratory fish that want to move upstream in Tryon Creek (for example, into the State Natural Area).  The first part of the project created a condition where fish could swim into the culvert (rather than have to jump into it).  The second part of the project replaced some old baffles in the culvert to try and help fish be able to swim through the culvert.

Some of the sediment and water quality problems observed in Tryon Creek are the result of runoff from tributaries.  This runoff picks up a large amount of sediment and moves that sediment into the creek.  A large amount of sediment in the water is likely bad for fish.  Thus, a project was implemented to construct brush-check dams in tributaries to Tryon Creek.  These dams made of natural brush are designed to help filter sediment out of the tributaries while still allowing for water and fish to pass.

Collaborative projects have been implemented throughout the watershed to address water flow, water quality, and aquatic and terrestrial habitat.  Bridges have been built to replace tributary culverts.

Is It Working?

If and how the urban restoration actions are benefiting fish and helping conservation IS the big question.  And a number of folks are interested in the answers.  A large number of community members are interested and the Friends of Tryon Creek have developed a citizen-based monitoring plan to help figure it out.  Various government agencies (such as the USFWS, ODFW, City of Portland, Oregon State Parks) and non governmental organizations (such as the Friends of Tryon Creek and Tryon Creel Watershed Council) are conducting monitoring to help figure it out.  Tryon Creek recently had a visit from Senior District Judge James Redden and District Judge Michael Simon who were also interested in seeing what was being done and what might be working.  Right now, it is probably too early to tell.  However, you can come and visit Tryon Creek, check out fact sheets and other information on the creek, volunteer to help monitor, see what’s going on and then  … YOU, too, can be the judge!

 Submitted by Tim Whitesel.

Monday, November 19, 2012

Tenacious Trespasser #1: Didymo

They secretly slither, swim, hitchhike and crawl their way, often traveling thousands of miles over land and sea to invade our local rivers, lakes and streams.  Once they make themselves at home, these pesky invaders wreak havoc on the aquatic ecosystem and local economy.  Yes folks, we are talking about Aquatic Nuisance Species.  In the next few months we will introduce you to 10 tenacious trespassers that pose a threat to the native flora, fauna, and fishes of the Columbia River Basin.  Keep a close eye out for these critters because we need to send them packing for good!
Didymo (Didymospenia geminate) aka Rock Snot             
What is it?
As its common name suggests, didymo may look like, well – snot, but it’s not.  Didymo is a microscopic freshwater diatom (type of algae) that secretes a fibrous stalk which it uses to attach itself to rocks and plants in rivers and streams.  During blooms, the stalks grow to form thick mats that can completely cover the stream bottom.  This disgusting diatom may look slimy, but its silica cell walls make it feel more like wet wool.  Nuisance blooms are often mistaken for raw sewage spills because trailing stalks look like wet toilet paper in the water.
FACT:  When examined under a microscope, didymo cells look like an old-fashioned coke bottle.
Where is it from & where is it now?
Didymo is native to the far northern regions of the Northern Hemisphere, including Europe, Asia, and parts of North America (i.e., Vancouver Island).  Historically it has been limited to cool, clear, flowing rivers and streams with relatively high water quality and good light penetration.  

National Invasive Species Information Center. 
Modified from map created by Karl Hermann, Sarah Spaulding, and Tera Keller.

In its non-native range, didymo is found in a broader range of habitats including lakes and ponds, and tolerates warmer, more nutrient rich waters.  Nuisance blooms of didymo have been documented throughout New Zealand, South America (Chile and Argentina), Canada, and North America.  This map shows the North American distribution of didymo as of July 2008. 
FACT:  Didymo has been found in 18 US states (as of 2011).

How did it get here?
It is unclear how this awful alga first slithered its way across the globe, but it is likely that humans are the main culprit.  Most speculate didymo was first introduced and is still spread by the movement of contaminated recreational gear (e.g., boats, trailers, fishing line and tackle, kayaks, inner tubes) and clothing (e.g., life jackets, wetsuits, waders, felt-soled wading boots)  from an infested water body.  It only takes a single viable cell of didymo to begin an infestation in a new water body. 
FACT:  Didymo cells will remain viable in a cool damp environment for at least 40 days.

What are its impacts?
Under optimal growing conditions, didymo forms dense mats that can completely envelop the stream bottom, smothering aquatic plants, insects and mollusks; reducing fish spawning and foraging habitat.  Nuisance blooms of didymo may cause a shift in the benthic macroinvertebrate community from caddisfly, mayfly and stonefly (an important food base of many native fish species) to more pollution tolerant midges and worms.  Didymo may out-compete or limit the growth of native algal species that are a food source for aquatic insects.  Didymo may also have harmful effects on the local economy.  Stalk material can clog irrigation canals, block pipes and water intake structures at hydropower facilities, hinder commercial and sport fisheries, and ruin the aesthetic value of a water body which may impact recreational and tourism industries.
FACT:  Mats of didymo can grow up to 12 inches thick on the stream bottom with strands trailing in length of up to three feet.

What is being done about it?
There is currently no known method for eradicating didymo once it infests a water body.  Researchers in New Zealand are testing various biocides for potential control of didymo, but it is unclear what impacts these chemicals may have on fish and wildlife.  For now, the only effective management tool is spread prevention.
FACT:  Didymo is commonly spread by unsuspecting anglers because felt-soled wading boots absorb didymo cells like a sponge and provide a moist environment while boots are transported to a new location.

How can YOU prevent the spread of didymo?
Many aquatic nuisance species are spread unknowingly on equipment, shoes, and clothing.  To minimize the potential spread of unwanted invaders, follow these simple steps.
·       CHECK: all recreational gear and clothing that has come in contact with water for visible fragments before leaving a water body.  Leave fragments at infected site, preferably on dry land.
·       CLEAN: and disinfect your gear before traveling to a different water body.  Scrub and soak non-absorbent  gear in very hot water (>140°F) and one of the cleaners below for at least one minute, or in hot tap water (≈113°F) and one of the cleaners below for at least 20 minutes.  Absorbent items such as felt-soled boots need to be soaked a minimum of 40 minutes.
o   Household bleach (2% solution)
o   Table salt (5% solution)
o   Antiseptic hand cleaner (5% solution)
o   Dish detergent (5% solution)
·       DRY:  Allow your gear to dry completely (at least 48 hours) before next use.


What if I find didymo?
If you find didymo or any other “tenacious trespasser” contact the Aquatic Nuisance Species Task Force at 1-877-STOP-ANS.




Submitted by Jennifer Poirier